Alexander Montoye




Associate Professor - Clinical Exercise Physiology


Integrative Physiology and Health Science

Educational Background

Education and work experience

  • B.S. Exercise and Health Science, Mathematics; Alma College (2006-2010)
  • Ph.D. Kinesiology/Exercise Physiology; Michigan State University (2010-2014)
  • Adjunct Professor; Alma College (2013-2014)
  • Assistant Professor of Clinical Exercise Physiology; Ball State University (2014-2016)
  • Assistant Professor of Integrative Physiology and Health Science; Alma College (2016-2022)
  • Associate Professor of Integrative Physiology and Health Science; Alma College (2022-present)


Associate Professor

My career at Alma began in


My expertise:

I teach in the Clinical Exercise Physiology track of the IPHS major. Students choosing this track have a number of job opportunities available right out of undergrad, including working in cardiac/pulmonary rehabilitation and corporate wellness programs. To those interested in pursuing graduate degrees in clinical exercise physiology, many programs offer assistantships which pay for the cost of the education plus offer a stipend while students are in the program.

My main research area involves physical activity monitoring devices. I study the accuracy and reliability of various physical activity monitors (accelerometers) and also use them as intervention tools to help individuals become more physically active. I’m also interested in ways to improve athletic performance through techniques such as ischemic preconditioning, which is the use of blood pressure cuffs to reduce blood flow to the legs for a period of time before a workout.

Signature course(s):

IPH 327 (Exercise Physiology), IPH 228/229 (Fitness assessment and exercise prescription), IPH 418 (EKG interpretation), IPH 419 (Stress testing), IPH 420 (Exercise Prescription)

Recent publications:

  1. Montoye AH, Pfeiffer KA, Alaimo K, Betz HH, Paek HJ, Carlson JJ, Eisenmann JC. Junk food consumption and screen time: Association with childhood adiposity. Am J Health Behav. 2013; 37(3): 395-403. DOI: 10.5993/AJHB.37.3.12
  2. Dong B, Montoye A, Moore R, Pfeiffer K, Biswas S. Energy-aware activity classification using wearable sensor networks. SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing paper. 2013; 870230Y-87230Y-7. DOI: 10.1117/12.2018134
  3. Dong B, Biswas S, Montoye A, Pfeiffer K. Comparing metabolic energy expenditure estimation using wearable multi-sensor network and single accelerometer. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, EMBC paper. 2013; 35: 2866-2869. DOI: 10.1109/EMBC.2013.6610138
  4. Dong B, Montoye A, Biswas S, Pfeiffer K. Metabolic energy expenditure estimation using a position-agnostic wearable sensor system. Healthcare Innovation Conference (HIC) paper. 2014; 34-37. DOI: 10.1109/HIC.2014.7038868
  5. Montoye AH, Dong B, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Use of a wireless network of accelerometers for improved measurement of human energy expenditure. Electronics. 2014; 3(2): 205-220. DOI: 10.3390/electronics3020205
  6. Montoye AH, Pfeiffer KA, Suton D, Trost SG. Evaluating the responsiveness of accelerometry to detect change in physical activity. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2014; 18(4): 273-285. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2014.942454
  7. Kaminsky LA, Montoye AHK. Physical activity and health: What is the best dose? J Am Heart Assoc. 2014; 3(4): 1-4. DOI: 10.1161/JAHA.114.001430
  8. ^Montoye AHK, Mudd LA, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Energy expenditure prediction using raw accelerometer data in simulated free living. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015; 47(8): 1735-1746. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000597
  9. Donaldson S, Kaminsky LA, Tuttle M, Montoye AHK. Variability of objectively measured sedentary behavior. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48(4): 755-761. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000828
  10. Montoye AHK, Pivarnik JM, Mudd LM, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Validation and comparison of accelerometers worn on the hip, thigh, and wrists for measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior. AIMS Public Health. 2016; 3(2): 298-312. DOI: 10.3934/publichealth.2016.2.298
  11. Tuttle M, Montoye AHK, Kaminsky LA. The benefits of body mass index and waist circumference in the assessment of health risk. Health Fitness J. 2016 Jul-Aug; 20(4): 15-20. DOI: 10.1249/FIT.0000000000000217
  12. Kaminsky LA, Brubaker PH, Guazzi M, Lavie CJ, Montoye AHK, Sanderson B, Savage P. Assessing physical activity as a core component in cardiac rehabilitation: A position statement of the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2016; 34(4): 217-229. DOI: 10.1097/HCR.0000000000000191
  13. Nelson MB, Kaminsky LA, Dickin DC, Montoye AHK. Validity of consumer-based physical activity monitors for specific activity types. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2016; 48 (8): 1619-2628. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000933
  14. Montoye AHK, Pivarnik JM, Mudd LM, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of activity type classification accuracy from accelerometers worn on the hip, wrists, and thigh in apparently healthy adults. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2016; 20(3): 173-183. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2016.1192038
  15. Mackintosh KA, Montoye AHK, Pfeiffer KA, McNarry MA. Investigating optimal accelerometer placement for energy expenditure prediction in children using a machine learning approach.. Phys Meas. 2016; 37(10): 1728-1740. DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/10/1728
  16. Montoye AHK, Pivarnik JM, Mudd LA, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Wrist-independent energy expenditure prediction models from raw accelerometer data. Phys Meas.2016; 37(10): 1770-1784. DOI: 10.1088/0967-3334/37/10/1770
  17. Montoye AHK, Dong B, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Validation of a wireless accelerometer network for energy expenditure measurement. J Sports Sci. 2016; 34(21): 2130-2139. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1151924
  18. ^^Montoye AHK, Begum M, Henning Z, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of linear and non-linear models for predicting energy expenditure from raw accelerometer data. Phys Meas. 2017; 38(2): 343-357. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6579/38/2/343
  19. Imboden MT, Welch WA, Swartz AM, Montoye AHK, Harber MP, Kaminsky LA. Reference standards for body fat measures using GE dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. PLoS ONE. 2017; 12(4):e0175110. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175110
  20. Bock JM, Kaminsky LA, Harber MP, Montoye AHK. Determining the reliability of several consumer-based physical activity monitors. Technologies. 2017; 5(47): 1-14. DOI: 10.3390/technologies5030047
  21. Montoye AHK, Mitrzyk JR, Molesky MJ. Comparative accuracy of a wrist-worn activity tracker and a smart shirt for physical activity assessment. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2017; 21(4): 201-211. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2017.1331166
  22. Montoye AHK, Conger SC, Connolly CP, Imboden MT, Nelson MB, Bock JM, Kaminsky LA. Validation of accelerometer-based energy expenditure prediction models in structured and simulated free-living settings. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2017; 21(4) 223-234. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2017.1337638
  23. Montoye AHK, Pivarnik JM, Mudd LM, Biswas S, Pfeiffer KA. Evaluation of the activPAL accelerometer for physical activity and energy expenditure estimation in a semi-structured setting. J Sci Med Sport. 2017; 20(11): 1003-1007. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2017.04.011
  24. Montoye AHK, Nelson MB, Bock JM, Imboden MT, Kaminsky LA, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA, Pfeiffer KA. Raw and count data comparability of hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X+ and Link accelerometers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2018; 50(5): 1103-1112. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001534
  25. Montoye AHK, Vusich J, Mitrzyk J, Wiersma M. Heart rate alters, but does not improve, Calorie prediction in Fitbit activity monitors. J Meas Phys Behav. 2018; 1(1): 9-17. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2018-0003
  26. Montoye AHK, Westgate BS, Fonley MR, Pfeiffer KA. Cross-validation and out-of-sample testing of physical activity intensity predictions using a wrist-worn accelerometer. J Appl Physiol. 2018; 124(5): 1284-1293. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00760.2017
  27. Imboden MT, Nelson MB, Kaminsky LA, Montoye AHK. Comparison of four Fitbit and Jawbone activity monitors to a research-grade ActiGraph accelerometer for estimating physical activity and energy expenditure. Br J Sports Med. 2018; 2(13): 844-850. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-096990
  28. Marshall MR, Montoye AHK, George, A. Pregnancy walking cadence does not vary by trimester. Gait Posture. 2018; 65: 81-85. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2018.06.175.
  29. Clevenger KA, Moore RW, Suton D, Montoye AHK, Trost SG, Pfeiffer KA. Accelerometer responsiveness to change between structured and unstructured physical activity in children and adolescents. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2018; 22(3), 224-230. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2017.1419956
  30. Montoye AHK, Moore RM, Bowles HR, Korycinski R, Pfeiffer KA. Reporting accelerometer methods in physical activity intervention studies: A systematic review and recommendations for authors. Br J Sports Med. 2018; 52: 1507-1516. DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095947
  31. Swalve N, Harfmann BD, Mitrzyk JM, Montoye AHK. Utility of activity monitors and thermometry in assessing sleep stages and sleep quality. J Meas Phys Behav. 2018; 1(3): 108-121. DIO: 10.1123/jmpb.2018-0012
  32. Razon S, Wallace AK, Ballesteros J, Koontz N, Judge LW, Montoye AHK. Perceptions of physical activity tracking devices: A survey analysis. Phys Educator. 2019; 76: 211-237. DOI: 10.18666/TPE-2019-V76-I1-8470
  33. Montoye AHK, Conger SC, Mitrzyk JR, Beach C, Fox AK, Steeves JA. Test-retest and inter-monitor reliability of the Atlas activity monitor for assessing resistance training exercises. J Meas Phys Behav. 2019; 2(1): 28-35. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2018-0071
  34. Montoye AHK, Mitrzyk JR. Validity of the Blast Athletic Performance monitor for assessing vertical jump height in female volleyball players. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2019; 23(2): 99-109. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2018.1539739.
  35. Clevenger KA, Molesky MJ, Vusich J, Montoye AHK. Free-living comparison of physical activity and sleep data from Fitbit activity trackers worn on the dominant and non-dominant wrists. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2019; 23(2): 194-204. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2019.1577737.
  36. Kingsley MIC, Nawaratne R, O’Halloran PD, Montoye AHK, Alahakoon D, De Silva D, Staley K, Nicholson M. Wrist-specific accelerometry methods for estimating free-living energy expenditure. J Sci Med Sport. 2019; 22(6): 677-683. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsams.2018.12.003.
  37. Clevenger KA, Pfeiffer KA, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA, Brond D, Arvidsson D, Montoye AHK. Effect of sampling rate on acceleration and counts of hip- and wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometers in children. Physiol Meas. 2019; 40(9): 095008. DOI: 10.1088/1361-6579/ab444b.
  38. Montoye AHK, Pfeiffer KA, Clevenger KA, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA. Cross-validation and comparison of energy expenditure prediction models using count-based and raw accelerometer data in youth. J Meas Phys Behav. 2019; 2(4): 237-246. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2018-0011
  39. Montoye AHK, Dahmen J, Campbell N, Connolly CP. Accuracy of physical activity monitors for steps and Calorie measurement during pregnancy walking. J Meas Phys Behav. 2019; 2(3): 143-156. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2018-0067
  40. Steeves JA, Conger SA, Mitrzyk JR, Perry T, Montoye AHK. Using the wrist-worn Atlas Wristband2 monitor to objectively measure resistance training exercises. J Meas Phys Behav. 2019; 2(4): 218-227. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2019-0012
  41. Conger SA, Steeves JA, Boss D, Anderson A, Montoye AHK. Validity of a wrist-worn activity monitor during resistance training exercises at different movement speeds. J Meas Phys Behav. 2019; 2(4): 247-255. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2019-0025
  42. Connolly CP, Conger SA, Montoye AHK, Marshall MR, Schlaff RA, Badon SE, Pivarnik JM. Walking for health during pregnancy: A literature review and considerations for future research. J Sport Health Sci. 2019; 8(5): 401-411. DOI: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.004
  43. Raymond CJ, Madar TJ, Montoye AHK. Accuracy of the Babolat Pop sensor for assessment of tennis strokes in structured and match play settings. J Sport Hum Performance. 2019; 7(1): 1-10. DOI: 10.12922/jshp.v7i1.146
  44. Marshall MR, Montoye AHK, Conway MR, Schlaff RA, Pfeiffer KA, Pivarnik JM. Longitudinal changes in walking cadence across pregnancy and postpartum. Gait Post. 2020; 79(2020): 234-238. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2020.05.012
  45. Connolly CP, Dahmen JB, Catena RD, Campbell NH, Montoye AHK. Physical activity monitor accuracy for overground walking and free-living conditions among pregnant women. J Meas Phys Behav. 2020; 3(2): 100-109. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2019-0059
  46. Lazar DM, Begum M, Murshed MM, Nelson MB, Bock JM, Imboden MT, Kaminsky LA, Montoye AHK. Statistical learning methods to predict activity intensity from body-worn accelerometers. J Biomed Analytics. 2020; 3(1): 27-50. DOI: 10.30577/jba.v3i1.57
  47. Clevenger KA, Pfeiffer KA, Montoye AHK. Cross-generational comparability of raw and count-based metrics from ActiGraph GT9X and wGT3X-BT accelerometers during free-living in youth. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. 2020; 24(3): 194-204. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2020.1773827
  48. Lisee C, Montoye AHK, Lewallen F, Hernandez M, Bell D, Kuenze C. Assessment of free-living cadence using ActiGraph accelerometers among individuals with and without ACL reconstruction. J Athl Train. 2020; 55(9): 994-1000. DOI: 10.4085/1062-6050-425-19
  49. Harfmann BD, Swalve N, Mitrzyk JM, Montoye AHK. Effect of chronotype on sleep quality in a laboratory setting. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020; 13(3): 1283-1294. DOI:
  50. Montoye AHK, Mitchinson CJ, Townsend OR, Nemmers CH, Serkaian CN, Rider BC. Ischemic preconditioning does not improve time trial performance in recreational runners. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020; 13(6): 1402-1417. DOI:
  51. Montoye AHK, Vondrasek JD, Hancock JB. Validity and reliability of the VO2 Master Pro for oxygen consumption and ventilation assessment. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020; 13(4): 1382-1401. DOI:
  52. Clevenger KA, Pfeiffer KA, Montoye AHK. Cross-generational comparability of hip- and wrist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+, wGT3X-BT, and GT9X accelerometers during free-living in adults. J Sports Sci. 2020; 38 (24): 2794-2802. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1801320.
  53. Montoye AHK, Clevenger KA, Pfeiffer KA, Nelson MB, Bock JM, Imboden MT, Kaminsky LA. Development of cut-points for determining activity intensity from a wrist-worn ActiGraph accelerometer in free-living adults. J Sports Sci. 2020; 38(22): 2569-2578. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1794244.
  54. Beach C, Montoye AHK, Steeves JA. Differences in physical activity during walking and playing Pokémon Go. Games Health J. 2021; 10(2): 130-138. DOI: 10.1089/g4h.2020.0070.
  55. Montoye AHK, Mithen AA, Westra HL, Besteman SS, Rider BC. The effect of compression socks on maximal exercise performance and recovery in insufficiently active adults. Int J Exerc Sci. 2021; 14(7): 1036-1051. DOI:
  56. Nawaratne R, Alahakoon D, De Silva D, O’Halloran PD, Montoye AHK, Staley K, Nicholson M, Kingsley MIC. Deep learning to predict energy expenditure and activity intensity in free living conditions using wrist-specific accelerometry. J Sports Sci. 2021; 39(6): 683-690. DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2020.1841394.
  57. Westra, HL, Montoye, AHK. Stretching after an in-water warm-up does not acutely improve sprint freestyle swim performance in DIII collegiate swimmers. Topics Ex Sci Kinesiol. 2021; 2(1): 1-13.
  58. Clevenger KA, Brond JC, Arvidsson D, Montoye AHK, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA, Pfeiffer KA. Impact of ActiGraph sampling rate and intermonitor comparability on measures of physical activity in adults. J Meas Phys Behav. 2021; 4(4): 287-297. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2021-0016.
  59. Montoye AHK, Westgate BS, Clevenger KA, Pfeiffer KA, Vondrasek JD, Fonley MR, Bock JM, Kaminsky LA. Individual vs. group calibration of machine learning models for physical activity assessment using body-worn accelerometers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2021; 52(12):2691-2701. DOI: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000002752.
  60. Montoye AHK, Vondrasek JD, Neph SE, Basu N, Paul L, Bachmair E, Stefanov K, Gray SR. Comparison of the activPAL CREA and VANE algorithms for characterization of posture and activity in free-living adults. J Meas Phys Behav. 2022; 5(1): 49-57. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2021-0053.
  61. Montoye AHK, Conger SA. Living a long life is a multi-step process. Lancet Pub Health. 2022; 7(3): e200-201. DOI: 10.1016/S2468-2667(22)00012-3.
  62. Nelson RK, Hasanaj K, Connolly G, Millen L, Muench J, Bidolli NSC, Preston MA, Montoye AHK. Comparison of wrist- and hip-worn activity monitors when meeting step guidelines. Pre Chron Dis. 2022; 19:210343. DOI: 10.5888/pcd19.210343.
  63. Clevenger KA, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA, Pfeiffer KA, Montoye AHK, Brond JC. Comparison of child and adolescent physical activity levels from open-source versus ActiGraph counts. J Meas Phys Behav. 2022; 5(2): 120-128. DOI: 10.1123/jmpb.2021-0057.
  64. Rider BC, Ditzenberger GL, Cox BA, Montoye AHK. The use of limb blood flow occlusion for rehabilitation and performance. Health Fitness J. 2022; 25(4): 28-32. DOI: 10.1249/FIT.0000000000000782.
  65. Marshall MR, Montoye AHK, Conway MR, Schlaff RA, Pfeiffer KA, Pivarnik JM. Location, location, location: Accelerometer placement affects steps-based physical activity outcomes during pregnancy and postpartum. Am J Lifestyle Med. In press. DOI: 10.1177/15598276211030472.
  66. Blumenburg WT, Frederick J, Cross BL, Culver MN, McMillan NK, Montoye AHK, Flatt AA, Grosicki GJ. Physical fitness, but not physical activity, is associated with mental health in apparently healthy young adults. J Sports Med Phys Fit. In press. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.21.13115-9.
  67. Pfeiffer KA, Kuenze C, Cadmus Bertram L, Bell DR, Westgate BS, Lisee CM, Kalfsbeek C, Montoye AHK. Using accelerometers to detect activity type in a sport setting: Challenges with using multiple types of conventional machine learning approaches. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci. In press. DOI: 10.1080/1091367X.2022.2069467.
  68. Culver MN, McMillan NK, Cross BL, Robinson AT, Montoye AHK, Riemann BL, Flatt AA, Grosicki GJ. Sleep duration irregularity is associated with elevated blood pressure in young adults. Chronobiol Int. In press. DOI: 10.1080/07420528.2022.2101373
  69. Grosicki GJ, Culver MN, McMillan NK, Cross BL, Montoye AHK, Riemann BL, Flatt AA. Self-recorded heart rate variability profiles are associated with health and lifestyle markers in young adults. Clin Autonomic Res. In press. DOI:
  70. Pfeiffer KA, Clevenger KA, Kaplan A, Van Camp CA, Strath SJ, Montoye AHK. Accessibility and use of novel methods for predicting physical activity and energy expenditure using accelerometry: A scoping review. Phys Meas. In press. DOI:
  71. Clevenger KA, Montoye AHK, Van Camp CA, Strath SJ, Pfeiffer KA. Methods for estimating physical activity and energy expenditure using raw accelerometry data or novel analytical approaches: A repository, framework, and reporting guidelines. Phys Meas. In press. DOI:
  72. Montoye AHK, Coolman O, Keys A, Read M, Shelton J, Willett E, Rider BC. Evaluation of two thigh-worn accelerometer brands in laboratory and free-living settings. J Meas Phys Behav. In press. DOI:
  73. Clevenger KA, Brond JC, Mackintosh KA, McNarry MA, Pfeiffer KA, Montoye AHK. Impact of ActiGraph sampling rate on free-living physical activity measurement in youth. Phys Meas. DOI:

Recent grants:


  1. Montoye AH (June 2013). Use of a thigh-mounted accelerometer to improve measurement of physical activity and sedentary behavior. Michigan State University College of Education – Graduate Research Fellowship. $2,040. Principal investigator.
  2. Montoye AH, Pfeiffer KA (July 2013). Improving health and wellbeing through improved assessment of sedentary behaviors. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation – Student Award Program Grant. $3,000.00. Principal investigator.
  3. Nelson MB, Montoye AHK (January 2015). Activity specific validity of consumer-based physical activity monitors. ASPiRE Graduate Student Grant. $500. Principal investigator.
  4. Montoye AHK (February 2015). Prediction of free-living physical activity and sedentary behavior using accelerometer-based activity monitors. College of Applied Sciences and Technology – Ball State University Internal Grant. $2,940. Principal investigator.
  5. Montoye AHK (April 2015). Prediction of free-living energy expenditure using accelerometers and machine learning. ASPiRE Internal Grant Program – Junior Faculty Research Competition. $12,520. Principal investigator.
  6. Montoye AHK, Rees T, Thurmond A, Masley K, Shafley B, Freeland T (April 2017). Alma College new EIM seed grant. Midwest ACSM New Exercise is Medicine Seed Grant. $500. Principal investigator.
  7. Cheatham M, Hoyt R, Hensler S, Bader L, Havlicek B, Montoye AHK (April 2019). Gratiot Isabella Prescription for Health. Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Community Health Matching Grant Program. $49,500 (~$10,200 to Alma College). Coinvestigator.
  8. Molesky M, Montoye AHK. Impact of Ultramarathoner Pack Weight and Load Positioning on Race Completion Time. MWACSM Undergraduate Student Research Study Project Award. $300. Principal investigator.
  9. Montoye AHK. Assessing physical fitness in firefighters and police officers as part of a community-engaged class experience. Center for College and Community Engagement Pilot Grant. $2,000. Principal investigator.
  10. McAlvey L, Saenz A, Wasen M, Christie H, Sanders D, Montoye AHK. Expanding the Gratiot County Community Garden to address social isolation and food insecurity. Michigan College Alliances College Community Challenge grant competition. $4,000. Principal investigator.

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